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What is the concept of information technology?


What is the concept of information technology?
What is the concept of information technology?

What does information technology mean?

Information and communications technology (TI) is a term that refers to the use of technology to collect, store, process, and transmit information in various forms via the Internet. This technology includes hardware, software, and networks that facilitate communication and information exchange between individuals and organizations. The main goal of ICT is to improve the flow of information, enhance communication, and enable rapid access to information needed by individuals and organizations.

The term technology is derived from a Greek word consisting of two parts (Techno), which means the skill of technical knowledge, and the word (Logy), which means (study), which then filters the organization of technical skill.

You also know the art and science used in the production of services, and they vary, as technology necessarily emphasizes results, research, and scientific matters, and it develops artistically because of the experiences and skills used to confirm that technology serves the needs of organizations and society.

The concept of information technology has been linked to the task of collecting, processing, storing, updating, and retrieving data. However, researchers in this field have differed in defining its concept. It has been described by some as the basic technology used in modern information systems based on computer applications and data.

It should be noted that information technology is divided into two important parts: (hardware) and (software), and among the important parts in this field are. Technology Support Technician, Knowledge Base Technology, Desktop Support Technician, Cloud Support Technician, and many more important terms that represent the essence of IT.

Other definitions of information technology

  • It is the physical and software components of computers, communication networks, and databases, which work to receive, process, store, and retrieve data and information for the end user at the appropriate time and time to use them in the administrative decision-making process in the organization.
  • It is the technology necessary for the process of capturing, classifying, analyzing, and re-transmitting data, to provide valuable outputs to the end user, at the appropriate time and place, to improve performance.
  • These are all computer systems and tools that deal with complex symbolic systems of knowledge or with mental cognitive abilities in the fields of learning and intelligence. Thus, information technology constitutes a comprehensive umbrella for all technological relationships with the data of human thought (data, information, and knowledge).
  • It is the force that helps organizations maintain their competitive advantage and face global competition, as they provide the needs and requirements of customers with speed and appropriate value.

Information technology features

Information technology offers many advantages that have made our lives more luxurious and our work easier and better. When we talk about information technology, we do not ignore the role of programming in the development of this field.

  1. Improving communication: It is now easier to transfer information and data faster and more efficiently, thus saving time and money. This is thanks to the application of techniques in a large number of areas of information and communications technology.
  2. The spread of globalization: ICT has contributed to the creation of a single interconnected system, allowing for easy communication between individuals and companies. Which reduces travel and accommodation costs to attend a meeting or conference. The world has become a small village thanks to these modern technologies and the proximity of cultures and nations to each other.
  3. Reducing cost: The use of ICT has helped facilitate business procedures and structure the company effectively. When talking about cost, the cost of sending an email is of course free, compared to the cost of making a single phone call, although it will have the same result and effect, but at a lower cost.
  4. Greater access opportunities: By applying ICT technologies in institutions and companies now, communication can be automated, making it easier for customers to access the company’s website or through e-mail 7 days a week and at any time.
  5. Providing new job opportunities: ICT has opened up many new and exciting job opportunities, with courses to learn and training to master. As is the case in many companies, which in turn provide many types of courses related to cybersecurity and other information and communications technology.
  6. Development of education: The use of computers, their various programs, and communication via the Internet has facilitated the spread of culture among people, in modern ways that did not exist previously.
  7. Advanced explanation systems: Advanced explanation methods are now available to teachers thanks to the use of information and communication technology technologies, which have enabled them to explain complex lessons and simplify them to students and ensure their understanding by offering them many applications for these lessons.
  8. Facilitating learning: ICT has enabled teachers to design virtual classrooms through which they can interact with students and make the learning process more enjoyable.
  9. Develop a user interface: Inserting images into the user interface has made it easier to use websites, as the user can now interact with images and perform the required steps on the website without having to read commands
  10. Improving the marketing and sales process: Internet marketing has recently spread, and many theories have emerged that help in reaching customers easily through social media platforms, then convincing them of the products or services provided by the company, and even completing the sale process.

What are the components of information technology?

Information technology consists of physical components (hardware and equipment) and consists of software, programming languages, databases, human resources, and communication networks.

Good infrastructure can provide effective tools and can have the ability to influence and change the level of development, as well as the possibility of creating new patterns of information technology applications based on primary infrastructure, such as e-learning, e-commerce, e-government, digital libraries, and national information systems.

Now we will talk in more detail about these components.

Physical components.

  • The physical components include the equipment used to enter information, store it, transmit it, circulate it, retrieve it, receive it, and broadcast it to the beneficiaries. It also includes the calculator and the devices connected to it, which include several things, including the central processing unit (CPU), the main board, the screen, and others. They are called the physical components, and their speed is a wide area of technological development. Scientists and engineers in computer and communications companies are a primary source of these tremendous developments.
  • Computers today have six main components: the central processing unit (CPU), the primary storage unit, the secondary storage unit, input technologies, Output Technology, and Communications Technology.

Intangible components.

1. System SoftwareIt is a group of programs that manage operations in a computer, including input devices, output devices, and secondary storage devices. They include.

  • Operating Systems.
  • Language Translation Programs.
  • Utility Programs.
  • Database Management System.

2. Application softwareThese are generalizations that direct the computer system to perform specific activities to process information of benefit to the user, and include application software, electronic spreadsheets, data management software, desktop publishing software, display graphics software, multimedia software, and communications software.

3. Databases: They are a logical organization of groups of interconnected files, where the data is integrated and linked by certain relationships, making it easier to find information to achieve the desired goals. The data is arranged and stored in a typical manner in which data duplication is avoided. O'Brien has identified six types of databases as follows.

  • Operational databases.
  • Analytical Database.
  • Data warehouses.
  • Distributed Database.
  • End-user databases.

4. Communication networks: Communication is the means most used to send and receive data and information, as it consists of a group of stations located in different locations linked together by means that allow beneficiaries, such as the process of sending and receiving. Companies and organizations must use the types of networks that are most appropriate for their work (the Internet, the Extranet) so that their employees can continually acquire information technology skills and improve their performance.

5. Human Resources: It includes individuals who will manage and operate information technology, whether they are administrators or specialists, as the importance of the human element that uses information technology exceeds the importance of the material supplies, as most cases of failure and success in applying information technology are attributed to the human element. Therefore, individuals are an important element in operating information systems, and they can be divided into two types.

  1. End users: Those who use information systems or the information produced by the system, such as accountants, salesmen, engineers, customers, managers, and most of us are end users.
  2. Information system specialists: They are those who develop and operate the information system, such as systems analysts, programmers, computer operators, and other specialists in this field.

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